Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger

Hey guys well today in class we were talkign about a few german scientists and I chose to look up this man. Hes pretty neat feel free to read up on him.


Microbeads Improve Disease Detection

Detecting Disease: Microbeads To Improve Identification Of Biomarkers In Body

Analyzing human blood for a very low virus concentration or a sample of water for a bioterrorism agent has always been a time-consuming and difficult process. Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University have developed an easier and faster method to detect these types of target molecules in liquid samples using highly porous, micron-sized, silica beads. The researchers developed a technique to simultaneously or sequentially add optical and magnetic nanoparticles into the beads. Adding magnetic nanoparticles allows the use of a magnetic field to attract and easily remove the beads from a liquid sample. The beads are mixed in a liquid such as urine. Viruses, proteins or other biomarkers are captured on the bead surface. After the beads are removed from the liquid, optical imaging is used to determine the concentration of a specific protein or virus in the liquid sample based on the number of proteins or viruses attached to the surface of the beads. For further research,

Okie, Vivian Coolen


Key to Safe Tan...

Sorry, I forgot to write my name at the end of that last blog about skin cancer.
-Manuel Contreras

Key to Safe Tan for Fair Skinned

Recently, we discussed how UV rays can cause skin conditions including cancer. I was wondering if there were any ways to protect ourselves besides traditional ways such as using sun-screen. It turns out there might actually be another solution in the future.
Research has led to discoveries on what actually causes skin to tan or, to be more precise, what keeps light-skinned people from tanning. Previously, it was believed that UV radiation directly affected melanocyte cells, which are cells in the epidermis that produce pigment known as melanin. Actually, UV rays affect nearby cells called keratinocytes and those can affect the melanocyte cells through receptors that link the two. However, light-skinned people have faulty receptors and that keeps them from tanning.
This is interesting because now that they know more about what causes the skin to tan, they have also found a possible way to allow tanning in light-skinned people. In experiments with mice, scientists have been able to use a plant extract called forskolin to bypass the faulty receptors causing pigmentation.
The true significance behind this is that if scientists succeed in being able to give light-skinned people a natural tan, that will reduce the number of people that develop skin cancer since people with light skin are at higher risk. However, we won't see any of this for years since it's currently only been tested on mice meaning that much of the process is still only theoretical. It's a good start though.
Here's the link which goes further in depth if anyone's interested.


Why Do Onions Make You Cry?

Unless you’ve avoided cooking, you probably cut up an onion and experienced the burning and tearing you get from the vapors. When you cut an onion, you break cells, releasing their contents. Amino acid sulfoxides form sulfenic acids. Enzymes that were kept separate now are free to mix with the sulfenic acids to produce propanethiol S-oxide, a volatile sulfur compound that wafts upward toward your eyes. This gas reacts with the water in your tears to form sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid burns, stimulating your eyes to release more tears to wash the irritant away.

I know most of you guys know this, but I wanted to share this article anyways…if you want to know more go to this website

Rodrigo Monsalve


Why do cut apples, pears, bananas and apples turn brown?


Along with the previews posted article, I found this other interesting article. It is about the reason why bananas, apples, pears and potatoes turn brown after a certain time of being cut.

This fruits contain contain an enzyme (called polyphenol oxidase or tyrosinase) that reacts with oxygen and iron-containing phenols that are also found in the apple. The oxidation reaction basically forms a sort of rust on the surface of the fruit. You see the browning when the fruit is cut or bruised because these actions damage the cells in the fruit, allowing oxygen in the air to react with the enzyme and other chemicals.

This reaction that takes place could be slowed or prevented by inactivating the enzyme with heat (cooking), reducing the pH on the surface of the fruit (by adding lemon juice or another acid), reducing the amount of available oxygen (by putting cut fruit under water or vacuum packing it), or by adding certain preservative chemicals (like sulfur dioxide).

If you want to read more about this, here is the link

Hope you found it interesting!!

Nohora C. Duque

The trick behind magic candles!!

Hey Guys!!

I found this interesting article that explains the truth behind Magic Candles used for birthday cakes! When you blow out a normal candle, you will see a thin ribbon of smoke rise up from the wick; while trick candles have fine flakes of the metal magnesium. Since it doesn't take too much heat to make magesium ignite (800° F or 430° C), but the magnesium itself burns white-hot and readily ignites the paraffin vapor, capable of being ignited by the relatively low temperature of the hot wick ember.

As I read this article, it came to my mind the last experiment that we did in our chemistri Lab class, since we also worked with Magnesium, remmembering it's bright appearance when it is heatted.

If you want to read more about this interesting article here is the link!

Take Care!!

Nohora C. Duque


The Chemistry of Food, Part 3--Proteins and Amino Acids

this is a very interesting article, it shows how proteins are an important class of macronutrients. Our bodies use proteins for growth and to build and repair body tissues. Each protein is a large complex molecule made up of a long chain of building blocks called amino acids. when we eat food, the digestive enzymes break the protein down into shorter amino acids chain and to individual amino acids. the amino acids then enter the blood stream and travel to the cells where they are incorporated into new proteins. if you want to know more, visit the website

Rodrigo Monsalve


Bubbles work just as well as electronic circuits

I thought this was a very interesting article because it comments on the new technology of
bubble logic that merges chemistry with computation technology. It relates how a new technology has been developed and it has replaced traditional electrical current in our computer chips to ones that work with the flow of tiny bubbles. Interesting isn't it?
The link is

Vivian Coolen


Test on Chapter 4

Hey, I just wanted to let you guys know my thoughts on the test. I thought that this test was not hard at all, but I have to admit that it was a little bit tricky on some questions. I was expecting the test to be harder-er than what it actually was. I think that the review or practice problems that Professor Okafor provides us are very helpful, it is an excellent review for the tests. I would like to hear opinions on the test from other people in the class. Thankyou very much.

Yasiel Hernandez


Do You Burn More Calories when you think Hard?


I found a very interesting article, it says that “our brain requires a tenth of a calorie per minute”. The brain communicates with other neurons through body tissues. These neurons produce chemicals called “Transmitters” and in order to have neurotransmitters, every neuron removes 75% of glucose (available calories) and 20% of oxygen blood.

Well, this was like a short introduction for you guys, if you want to know more go check the website, they have pretty good articles also.


Can drinking too much water lead to water intoxication?

HEy guys!!

I found this interesting article, which is related to a question that was brought up by Francia in class, of Can drinking too much water lead to water intoxication? and in some how it is also related with solutes and dilution (seein in ch. 4).

It explains that when too much water enters the body's cells, the tissues swell with the excess fluid. Your cells maintain a specific concentration gradient, so excess water outside the cells (the serum) draws sodium from within the cells out into the serum in an attempt to re-establish the necessary concentration. As more water accumulates, the serum sodium concentration drops -- a condition known as hyponatremia.

The other way cells try to regain the electrolyte balance is for water outside the cells to rush into the cells via osmosis. The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from higher to lower concentration is called osmosis. Although electrolytes are more concentrated inside the cells than outside, the water outside the cells is 'more concentrated' or 'less dilute' since it contains fewer electrolytes. Both electrolytes and water move across the cell membrane in an effort to balance concentration. Theoretically, cells could swell to the point of bursting.

BUt the truth is that , most adults need about three quarts of fluid each day. Much of that water comes from food, so 8-12 eight ounce glasses a day is a common recommended intake. You may need more water if the weather is very warm or very dry, if you are exercising, or if you are taking certain medications. The bottom line is this: it's possible to drink too much water, but unless you are running a marathon or an infant, water intoxication is a very uncommon condition.

If you want to read the complete article, this is the link, Hope you enjoy it!!

Nohora C. Duque


Carbon Monoxide Detectors

Hi everyone!
I found this article that I thought was interesting. You've probably all heard of carbon monoxide detectors, but this gives you important details about them. I hope it benefits someone! :-)