Artificial Bones

Hey guys,
You all know how difficult it can be to seperate certain chemical bonds. Recently, scientists have been able to mechanically force chemical bonds of a molecule called benzocyclobutene (BCB) to break apart. Doing this mechanically is better than the previous method of doing it chemically using light, heat, or electricity.
Now, the true significance of this new discovery is that seperating BCB mechanically allows it to reform into two identical shapes, meaning that polymeric substances made from BCB can be self-healing. Think about it, this means that scientists can make the substance into artificial bones that automatically repair any cracks or breaks they may encounter and actually thicken and harden, mimicking how actual living bone works.
Like any new discovery, perfecting this substance is still years away, but it is an important breakthrough nonetheless. Okay, just wanted to share that with you guys, take care.

-Manuel Contreras
For a more in-depth look at this new discovery, you can check out:


Dangerous mixtures from common household chemicals

Hey Guys!!!,

I found this interesting article, just in case for you to know, and do not make any dangerous mixtures at home! Since some of the common chemicals found in your home shouldn't be mixed together. It's one thing to say "don't mix bleach with ammonia", but it's not always easy to know what products contain these two chemicals. Here's are some products you may have around the home that shouldn't be combined.
Bleach with Acid Toilet Bowl CleanersThis mixture can result in toxic, potentially deadly fumes.
Bleach with VinegarVinegar is a type of acid. Toxic chlorine vapor is produced. Don't mix chlorine bleach with any acid.
Bleach with AmmoniaToxic, potentially lethal vapors are produced.
Different Brands of One Type of ProductDon't mix different cleaners together. They may react violently, produce toxins, or become ineffective.
Highly Alkaline Products with Highly Acidic ProductsAcids and bases (alkalis) can react violently, presenting a splash hazard.
Acids and bases are caustic and may cause chemical burns.
Certain Disinfectants with DetegentsDon't mix disinfectants with 'quaternary ammonia' listed as an ingedient with a detergent. The effectiveness of the disinfectant may be neutralized.
Chlorine bleach is sometimes called “sodium hypochlorite” or “hypochlorite.” You will encounter it in chlorine bleach, automatic dishwashing detergents, chlorinated disinfectants and cleaners, chlorinated scouring powder, mildew removers, and toilet bowl cleaners. Do not mix products together. Do not mix them with ammonia or vinegar.
With this, just remember to read the labels of products in your home and following instructions for proper use. Many containers will state the most common dangers from interaction with other products.

So, after this, just try to have in mind all the instructions mentioned above!!

Take care!!

Nohora C. Duque

Explosive chemicals- How Dangerous are They?

Well for those that are interested this article is basically about defining the dangers of Explosive Chemicals. For instance it explains the flash points of chemicals that Is the temperature at which the chemical will give out fumes sufficiently enough to catch fire when a lighted flame is brought near to it. The ingnition point of a chemical can be reached when a lighted flame is brought near to the combustible fumes, or it can be from a sparking electrical contact or even from sparks produced from mechanical impact. Very often, it can even come from sparks generated by static electricity. this article helps the reader understand that sure while these chemicals are explosive you shouldnt completely fear being near them. Just handle the chemicals as needed. Because if we all feared using these chemicals than we wouldnt have oil refineries and petrlouem stations.


Why is Coca-Cola Corrosive?

Hey Guys!!
As I read this report, Bob Peeples, a chemical Engineer, from the environmental Program, answered the question from a student, of why is Coca-cola corrosive?, as he answered:
Coca-Cola®, like any other soda / soft drink, is acidic. This is because a small amount of the carbon dioxide dissolved in soft drinks (to make them effervescent) will react in solution to form carbonic acid. Carbonic acid may clean the rust from a nail, but it would not dissolve a nail in 24 hours. (Try it—a can of Coke® and a nail costs less than a dollar). Many common foods are acidic. That does not mean that they are dangerous. Speciallized cells in the human stomach wall secrete hydrocloric acid. Hydrochloric acid is much stronger than carbonic acid, and will dissolve an iron nail easily. The contents of your stomach are usually at a pH of 2.
Coca-Cola® products range in pH from 2.5 - 4.2. Coca-Cola Classic® is the most acidic at 2.5. Other food liquids that might contain Carbonic acid could include lemon juice, vinegar, salad dressings, and pickle solutions.
We also discovered that the human stomach is pretty capable of regulating its own pH. If things do get out of control, it is not usually the hydrochloric acid itself that is dangerous. Digestive enzymes work best at their optimum pH. One enzyme in particular, pepsin, works a little too well if the stomach is allowed to approach pepsin's optimum pH of 1.5 - 1.6. Excessive enzyme activity (in effect, digesting the wrong meat) is the real reason that excess stomach acid leads to gastric ulcers—not stomach acid itself.
A curious note found at the end of the article is: Another fun experiment is to drop an unopened can of Diet Coke® and an unopened can of Coca-Cola Classic® in a tank, bowl or bucket of water. Although both cans contain the same amount of liquid, one floats and the other sinks because of the difference in density between sugar and aspartame, the sweetener used in Diet Coke®.
I’ve heard many myths that Coca-Cola is really bad for your stomach. This article covers pretty much this explanation answering the student’s question.Iif you may want to visit the web site, here is the link

Hope you found it interesting!

Nohora C. Duque


The World’s Strongest Acid

None of the strong acids traditionally listed in a chemistry text holds the title of the world’s Strongest Acid. It used to be Fluorosulfuric Acid HFSO3, but the Caborane are millions of times stronger than the HFSO3, and also is more powerful than concentrated sulfuric acid.

The carborane acids are also incredible proton donors, but they are not corrosive. Corrosiveness is related to negatively-charged part of the acid. Hydrofluoric acid HF, it’s an example of a corrosive because it dissolves glass. But it’s not considered to be strong acid because it does not completely dissociate in water.

Rodrigo Monsalve

If you want to know more guys please visit


Chemistry and Diamonds

Hey guys,
I read this article about how advancements in chemistry are allowing scientists to make synthetic diamonds that look just like mined diamonds. Synthetic diamonds are chemically and physically true diamonds, and they cost only about a third as much as the ones that are naturally found. These synthetics have been around for a while, but have only recently been made to sizes of more than one carat. Synthetic diamonds start out as tiny diamond "seeds" which chemists then grow.
Scientists are doing even more with diamonds; they can turn either natural or synthetic diamonds into different colors by introducing chemicals into the stone. For example, diamonds can be turned blue by carefully infusing them with boron.
Not only are these advancements interesting, but they may someday reduce the mining of natural diamonds, which is a harsh and dangeroud task.
Here's the article if you want to know more.

-Manuel Contreras


Chemical Names

Hey guys, I found this really cool article on the "real" chemical names for some common substances used in our daily lives. (This article was found in

Here it is:

Chemical Names of Common Substances
Alternate Words for Familiar Materials
Chemical or scientific names are used to give an accurate description of a substance's composition. Even so, you rarely ask someone to pass the sodium chloride at the dinner table. It's important to remember that common names are inaccurate and vary from one place and time to another. Therefore, don't assume that you know the chemical composition of a substance based on its common name. This is a list of archaic names and common names for chemicals, with their modern or IUPAC equivalent name.
Common Name
Chemical Name
dimethyl ketone; 2-propanone (usually known as acetone)
acid potassium sulfate
potassium bisulfate
acid of sugar
oxalic acid
nitric acid
alcali volatil
ammonium hydroxide
alcohol, grain
ethyl alcohol
alcohol sulfuris
carbon disulfide
alcohol, wood
methyl alcohol
aluminum potassium sulfate
aluminum oxide
sodium thiosulfate
antimony black
antimony trisulfide
antimony bloom
antimony trioxide
antimony glance
antimony trisulfide
antimony red (vermillion)
antimony oxysulfide
aqua ammonia
aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide
aqua fortis
nitric acid
aqua regia
nitrohydrochloric acid
aromatic spirit of ammonia
ammonia in alcohol
arsenic glass
arsenic trioxide
mineral form of basic copper carbonate
magnesium silicate
acetylsalicylic acid
baking soda
sodium bicarbonate
banana oil (artificial)
isoamyl acetate
barium white
barium sulfate
bicarbonate of soda
sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate
bichloride of mercury
mercuric chloride
potassium dichromate
bitter salt
magnesium sulfate
black ash
crude form of sodium carbonate
black copper oxide
cupric oxide
black lead
graphite (carbon)
barium sulfate
bleaching powder
chlorinated lime; calcium hypochlorite
blue copperas
copper sulfate (crystals)
blue lead
lead sulfate
blue salts
nickel sulfate
blue stone
copper sulfate (crystals)
blue vitriol
copper sulfate
copper sulfate
bone ash
crude calcium phosphate
bone black
crude animal charcoal
boracic acid
boric acid
sodium borate; sodium tetraborate
bremen blue
basic copper carbonate
burnt alum
anhydrous potassium aluminum sulfate
burnt lime
calcium oxide
burnt ochre
ferric oxide
burnt ore
ferric oxide
aqueous sodium chloride solution
butter of antimony
antimony trichloride
butter of tin
anhydrous stannic chloride
butter of zinc
zinc chloride
mercury chloride; mercurous chloride
carbolic acid
carbonic acid gas
carbon dioxide
caustic lime
calcium hydroxide
caustic potash
potassium hydroxide
caustic soda
sodium hydroxide
calcium carbonate
Chile saltpeter
sodium nitrate
Chile nitre
sodium nitrate
Chinese red
basic lead chromate
Chinese white
zinc oxide
chloride of soda
sodium hypochlorite
chloride of lime
calcium hypochlorite
chrome alum
chromic potassium sulfate
chrome green
chromium oxide
chrome yellow
lead (VI) chromate
chromic acid
chromium trioxide
ferrous sulfate
corrosive sublimate
mercury (II) chloride
corundum (ruby, sapphire)
chiefly aluminum oxide
cream of tartar
potassium bitartrate
crocus powder
ferric oxide
crystal carbonate
sodium carbonate
sodium thiophosphate
carbon crystal
emery powder
impure aluminum oxide
epsom salts
magnesium sulfate
ethyl alcohol
ferro prussiate
potassium ferricyanide
flores martis
anhydride iron (III) chloride
natural calcium fluoride
fixed white
barium sulfate
flowers of sulfur
'flowers of' any metal
oxide of the metal
aqueous formaldehyde solution
French chalk
natural magnesium silicate
French vergidris
basic copper acetate
natural lead sulfide
Glauber's salt
sodium sulfate
green verditer
basic copper carbonate
green vitriol
ferrous sulfate crystals
natural calcium sulfate
hard oil
boiled linseed oil
heavy spar
barium sulfate
hydrocyanic acid
hydrogen cynanide
hypo (photography)
sodium thiosulfate solution
Indian red
ferric oxide
agar-agar gelatin
jeweler's rouge
ferric oxide
killed spirits
zinc chloride
crude form of carbon; charcoal
laughing gas
nitrous oxide
lead peroxide
lead dioxide
lead protoxide
lead oxide
calcium oxide
lime, slaked
calcium hydroxide
aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide
liquor ammonia
ammonium hydroxide solution
lead monoxide
lunar caustic
silver nitrate
liver of sulfur
sufurated potash
lye or soda lye
sodium hydroxide
magnesium oxide
manganese black
manganese dioxide
mainly calcium carbonate
mercury oxide, black
mercurous oxide
methyl alcohol
methylated spirits
methyl alcohol
milk of lime
calcium hydroxide
milk of magnesium
magnesium hydroxide
milk of sulfur
precipitated sulfur
"muriate" of a metal
chloride of the metal
muriatic acid
hydrochloric acid
sodium carbonate
potassium nitrate
nordhausen acid
fuming sulfuric acid
oil of mars
deliquescent anhydrous iron (III) chloride
oil of vitriol
sulfuric acid
oil of wintergreen (artificial)
methyl salicylate
orthophosphoric acid
phosphoric acid
Paris blue
ferric ferrocyanide
Paris green
copper acetoarsenite
Paris white
powdered calcium carbonate
pear oil (artificial)
isoamyl acetate
pearl ash
potassium carbonate
permanent white
barium sulfate
plaster of Paris
calcium sulfate
potassium carbonate
potassium hydroxide
precipitated chalk
calcium carbonate
Prussic acid
hydrogen cyanide
tetrasodium pyrophosphate
calcium oxide
red lead
lead tetraoxide
red liquor
aluminum acetate solution
red prussiate of potash
potassium ferrocyanide
red prussiate of soda
sodium ferrocyanide
Rochelle salt
potassium sodium tartrate
rock salt
sodium chloride
rouge, jeweler's
ferric oxide
rubbing alcohol
isopropyl alcohol
sal ammoniac
ammonium chloride
sal soda
sodium carbonate
salt, table
sodium chloride
salt of lemon
potassium binoxalate
salt of tartar
potassium carbonate
potassium nitrate
silicon dioxide
slaked lime
calcium hydroxide
soda ash
sodium carbonate
soda nitre
sodium nitrate
soda lye
sodium hydroxide
soluble glass
sodium silicate
sour water
dilute sulfuric acid
spirit of hartshorn
ammonium hydroxide solution
spirit of salt
hydrochloric acid
spirit of wine
ethyl alcohol
spirits of nitrous ether
ethyl nitrate
sugar, table
sugar of lead
lead acetate
sulfuric ether
ethyl ether
talc or talcum
magnesium silicate
tin crystals
stannous chloride
natural sodium carbonate
unslaked lime
calcium oxide
Venetian red
ferric oxide
basic copper acetate
Vienna lime
calcium carbonate
impure dilute acetic acid
vitamin C
ascorbic acid
sulfuric acid
washing soda
sodium carbonate
water glass
sodium silicate
white caustic
sodium hydroxide
white lead
basic lead carbonate
white vitriol
zinc sulfate crystals
yellow prussiate of potash
potassium ferrocyanide
yellow prussiate of soda
sodium ferrocyanide
zinc vitriol
zinc sulfate
zinc white
zinc oxide

Yasiel Hernandez


Scientists study movement of atoms

British chemists say they've designed a unique structure to capture the movement of atoms and improve future designs of pharmaceuticals. The University of Liverpool researchers say their findings deepen scientists' understanding of how to control chemical reactions and improve processes from the design of biopharmaceuticals to the engineering of new catalysts.
The Liverpool scientists said they created a porous crystal that has "walls" of atoms and cavities acting as containers for molecules. They used that crystal to accommodate a set of molecules taking part in a chemical reaction, similar to reactions by enzymes and proteins that regulate and keep alive living systems. The crystal was put into a powerful X-ray diffraction machine to allow scientists to precisely pinpoint the positions of individual atoms, providing snapshots of their movement both before and after the reaction. The researchers say that marked the first time the positions of atoms both at the beginning and the end of a chemical process have been seen.

The research appears in the latest issue of Science magazine.

Posted by Vivian Coolen



Hi everyone!
I found this pretty interesting article on gasoline. I'm posting it because I think it's important for everyone to a little something about the type of fluids that are being used for their automobile. I hope you learn something from it :-)

-Francia :-)


10 Carbon Facts

1.) Carbon is a nonmetal that can bond with itself and many other elements, forming nearly ten million elements.
2.) Elemental carbon can take the form of one of the hardest substances (diamond) or one of the softest (graphite).
3.) Carbon is the basis for organic chemistry, as it occurs in all living organisms.
4.) Carbon is made in the interiors of stars, though it was not produced in the Big Bang.
5.) Carbon compounds have limitless uses. In its elemental form, diamond is a gemstone and used for drilling/cutting; graphite is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and to protect against rust; while charcoal is used to remove toxins, tastes, and odors.
6.) Carbon has the highest melting/sublimation point of the elements. The melting point of diamond is ~3550°C, with the sublimation point of carbon around 3800°C.
7.) Pure carbon exists free in nature and has been known since prehistoric time.
8.) The origin of the name 'carbon' comes from the Latin word carbo, for charcoal. The German and French words for charcoal are similar.
9.) Pure carbon is considered non-toxic, although inhalation of fine particles, such as soot, can damage lung tissue.
10.) Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe (hydrogen, helium, and oxygen are found in higher amounts, by mass).

Rodrigo Monsalve.....

i just think it was necessary that we all know get some information about this particular element carbon.